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The Five Nations were immigrants to New York State too, same as the whites.

Based on the records of mainly Seneca Chief and Historian, Eli Parker in 1850 and Dr. von Gernet Hickman and Archaeologist.

Compiled by Harry Pettengill, Jr. UCE Historian


New York State is not the indigenous homeland of the Iroquois any more than the iceman found in the Italian Alps is the indigenous homeland of the Italian. The Iroquois entered through NYS from the south from 800 to 1300 A.D. Aboriginal tribes that were in NYS as early as 3000 B.C. were exterminated by the Iroquois. The Five Nations original bloodline can be traced to one tribe of about 1000 persons at Montreal Canada. This tribe entered NYS in about 1536 and the League was formed at the head of Onondaga Lake in about 1570. The following is a summary of the facts found, together with the page and name of the article for further search.

Lets review archaeology. From the book, "Handbook of North American Indians", Smithsonian Institution. Volume 15, page 322, Senior editor, William C, Sturtevant. Early Indians in NYS were the Lamoka from 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. They were displaced by the Algonquin from 1000 B.C. to 1000 A.D. For further confirmation, there is a sign for Algonquins at Emerson Park, Cross Road, Auburn N.Y. The Owascos, believed to be the forerunner of the Iroquois, (some doubt here) replaced the Alqonquins in about 800 A.D. There were definitely Iroquois in 1300 A.D. from the Oak Hill Iroquois dig in 1300 A.D. to present. (New facts, Owasco were Iroquois.)

The claim of the Iroquois being here 30,000 years ago, has been proven wrong. From the "National Geographic" magazine, Dec. 2000 issue, is the fact that former archaeology digs were contaminated. Carbon dating can only be made with organic matter, not anything made of stone (arrow heads) or clay (pottery). Moments of contamination by water, forest fires. windblown dust, etc. made former carbon dating inaccurate. The only source that is not polluted and accurate is the marrow in human bones. It's 100% accurate. The earliest human bones found to date is in the State of Washington and carbon dated at 18,000 years ago (same time as the glacier). In New York State the earliest bones are from the Lamokas, at 3000 years ago.

Archaeologists refer to the Eries, Neutrals, Huron, the Six Nations and others who spoke the same language as Iroquoians and of the same original blood line. From the New York Bulletin 184, "The Constitution of the Five Nations", in article 73 of this Constitution, it states that different tongues constitute different tribes. All archaeology digs show a south to north movement. As the Cherokees spoke the same language, Cherokees are the origin of the Iroquois.

The condition of NYS Indians prior to the Iroquois domination consisted of many small tribes that all fought each other, even brother against brother. The book "League of the Iroquois," by Lewis Morgan, is considered the bible on Iroquois history. Details as to why are in the next paragraph.

Lewis Morgan happened to meet Eli Parker in a book store in Albany. Morgan was very interested in Iroquois history. Eli told Morgan that he would like to have the Iroquois history put into writing. They talked for three days and decided to do it. Both were prolific writers and many of their papers are located in the library of the University of Rochester. Eli Parker was a Seneca Chief and well educated. Eli immediately began. to search the memory of his elders. There was one Indian in each major tribe whose duty it was to remember the past history of the Iroquois, which he had learned from former historians, from artifacts, wampum belts etc. The history of the Iroquois was put into writing, finished in about 1848 and published in 1851, long before the present conflict. Eli Parker could speak the Iroquois language, so there were no mistakes here. This book is a classic.

>From the book, "League of the Iroquois," pages 5 to 6, Eli Parker states the original five nations was one tribe of many Iroquoians throughout NYS and Canada. They lived at Montreal Canada under the subjection of the Adirondacks, a branch of the Algonquins. They fought the Adirondacks for their independence, but lost. Forced to flee Canada to escape extermination, they traveled down the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario and entered by the Oswego River and settled near Onondaga Lake. They expelled the small family tribes living there. When they increased in number a group would break off from the mother tribe and form a new tribe in a new location. This splitting off from the mother tribe at Onondaga Lake is how the five nations were formed. Yes, they still fought each other.

In about 1570, Dekanawida, a Huron from the Bay of Quincy, Ontario Canada, approached the Flint Nation (Mohawks) and convinced their chiefs not to fight each other. He was known as the "Peacemaker". He approached the Onondaga, Oneida and Cayugas to also agree to not fight each other. It took a little longer for the Seneca tribe to join, but Dekanawida managed it. The five nations were formed and never again fought each other, but fought all other tribes to the point of extermination. This formed the most feared and powerful tribe in North America.

To verify that New York was made up of many small tribes prior to Iroquois domination we go to Henry Hudson records in 1609. His records show that every few miles up the river was a different tribe that could not understand the one above it. They wanted off his boat when entering a new area. This is proof that Eli was correct in that there were many small tribes prior to the Iroquois domination.

Lets see if we can support Eli Parker's records with white mans written records. From Jacque Cartier records, when' he explored the St. Lawrence River in 1534, he found Algonquin at Quebec, Canada. Houses were square or round and about 15 feet across. They held a single family group, very little farming and no longhouses.

He took a couple of Indians back to France with him and they learned French. He returned in 1535 and was then able to communicate freely. The Algonquins told Cartier that a bigger tribe lived up the river and spoke a different language. Cartier took 20 men and visited this tribe. He was welcomed. This tribe had houses over 150 feet long that held several family groups. They were farmers with large fields of corn. The village numbered over a 1000 persons. They were Iroquois. This supports Eli Parker's records.

In 1603, Samuel Champlain explored the St. Lawrence River. He found Algonquin at Quebec, but the Iroquois at Montreal were gone. This also supports Eli Parker's records. Hence, the Iroquois must have attacked the Algonquin immediately after they learned they were a bigger tribe than those at Quebec, say in 1536. This was a mistake, as there were many other Algonquin in the woods surrounding Quebec, so they lost.

Reference: Jacque Cartier and Samuel Champlain records from the book "Pioneer History of Phelps and Gorham Purchase" by Orsamus Turner, pages 12 to 15.

It is therefore my opinion that Eli Parker's records are correct and that MONTREAL IS THE FIVE NATIONS ORIGINAL ORIGIN OR HOMELAND NOT NEW YOUR STATE.

CONCLUSION: The Lamoka and AIgonqins lived in New York State thousands of years before the Iroquois stole their land with no compensation given, except death. The Iroquois didn't enter NYS until 800 A.D. at the earliest and yet they claim it is their original homeland, thousands of years too late. By this hypothesis, a Cayuga born in Oklahoma in the year 2000, is claiming that NYS is their homeland 400 years after the fact. By this same reasoning, they could claim Asia as their homeland as it is considered the origin of all Indians. This Iroquois claim is a farce, a pretense that is not even reasonably true.

An explanation of how they got almost a third of the eastern U.S.:

How can one tribe of a 1000 persons at Montreal, Canada be in control of all the NYS and part of Canada by 1656? It was by extermination of all other tribes. Complete genocide. This fighting machine conquered most. tribes by ambush. They exterminated everybody, including all women and children, except boys 10 to 15 years who were adopted into the tribe and raised by the clan mothers. This replaced the warrior that had been killed in combat. Some male warriors where also adopted but watched closely. They had no other choice. .

In 1609, the Five Nations controlled NYS from the Hudson River to the Genesee River (Hudson Records). From 1649 to 1656 they attacked the Erie, Neutral and Hurons and controlled all of NYS.

We will only explore the Erie, Neutral and Hurons, which were Iroquoians, the same as the Five Nations. The territory location of the Eries was from the Genesee River, south of present Rt. 20 to the Pennsylvania border and west to the south shores of Lake Erie. The Neutral territory was from the Genesee River, north of Rt. 20, to Lake Ontario and west to the north shores of Lake Erie. The Hurons were north of both Lake Erie and Lake Ontario to deep into Canada.

You had better be sitting down when you read the following. The Neutral allowed other tribes to cross their land, so there was no problem with the Five Nations crossing their: land and attacking the Hurons. The Five Nations attacked the Hurons in 1649 to 1651. They killed over 20,000 Hurons. Most Hurons escaped by moving west and north. They attacked the Eries in 1653 to 1656 and killed over 15,000 Eries. Both statistics are recorded in the Academic American Encyclopedia on page 229 and 316. They attacked the Neutrals in 1656 and killed over 12,000 (from the Britannia Encyclopedia). These wars resulted in the Eries and Neutrals being exterminated, complete genocide. They exist only in name today.

The following was recorded by a French Missionary of this war. 6000 Hurons were trapped on Christian Island in Georgia Bay. They had no food supply. The Five Nations just sat on shore and starved them to death. The Hurons WOULD rather starve than face Iroquois torture. Escapees were hunted down like a dog on a blood trail.

By 1750, the Six Nations controlled from the Hudson River to the Mississippi, south to the Tennessee River and north to Montreal. Small satellites of the Five Nations in that area kept them in line by fear and intimidation.

How can the Five Nations accept the fact that the original origin of the Five Nations is as one tribe at Montreal Canada and that they are not the indigenous occupant of New York State?

Their claim must be viewed as a legend, passed down thru the ages. Their legends are no different in scope than the many legends of other nations of their origin. In ancient times it was the only means of stating their origin. Yet, it is to accept these legends and be proud of them and to realize what they are and to accept that archaeology and written records that are available today take precedent. The same as the many of the worlds population have done so.


FACTS ON ELI S. PARKER. Eli Parker was a Seneca Chief. Well educated in both law and civil engineering. In just a few years he became a captain in New York State militia civil engineering. He built many, bridges etc. Eli entered the Civil War and fought in several battles. He became aid-de-camp to General Grant and wrote the terms to General Lee's surrender to General Grant. Eli was a Brigadier General at the end of the war and became Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He retired 1871.

FACTS ON LEWIS H. MORGAN. A wealthy corporate lawyer and intellectual, Lewis left law practice to engage in ethnology (The comparison study of cultures). He is considered the most important 'social' scientist in the nineteen century. Lewis was adopted by the Seneca, proof that he was not biased at all. At Albany N.Y., the artifacts he received of the Seneca's are on display at New York Museum in Morgan's Hall, named after Lewis a Morgan.

FACTS ON ORSAMUS TURNER. He was the author of "Pioneer History of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase". His father, Roswell Turner, had the first tavern in the Batavia area in 1795. Orsamus was brought up with the Seneca 's children and could understand Iroquoian. He started work for a local editor in 1805 and later for a Rochester paper. Orsamus became owner and editor of his own paper at Lockport N.Y. in 1822. For over 40 years he kept records of Indian and the early pioneer history of New York. He actually interviewed Lafayette and Robert Morris. He was a friend of Red Jacket and interviewed him several times.

In My Opinion Harry Pettengill, Jr.

For confirmation of this article. Consult the following records:

Dr. Alexander von Gernet, expert witness at the 2000 Cayuga land claim trial in 1999 and 2000 ("Opinion Reports" of 1999 and 2000).

Dr. Warren Hickman, Prof Emeritus, wrote "A Cayuga Chronicle" regarding the Cayuga Indian land claim and its history.

Seneca Chief Eli Parker and the author, Henry L. Morgan in their book, "League of the Iroquois", published in 1851.

"Pioneer History of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase" by Orsamus Turner, an editor. Over 40 years of research from 1807 to 1850. Published in 1851.

"Handbook of North American Indians", Smithsonian Institution, Volume 15, Senior Editor, William C. Sturtevant. Published in.1978.

Dec. 2000, "National Geographic". Correction on date of archeology artifacts in former digs.

Several Encyclopedia and History books to numerous to mention.

Full credit must be given to the authors of the above articles. It is their work, not mine. This article was written in 1995, revised in 2000 and again in 2005 to include the title of the source and in many cases, the actual page therein.

What may appear to be conflicts of information, such as the tribe that entered New York in 1536 that became the Five Nations and another source listing the Owascos as possible forerunners of the Iroquois entering New York in 800 and the Oak Hill Iroquois dig in 1300 A.D., which may have been Owascos, don't change the bottom line. This is not the origin, or homeland, of the Iroquois tribes of today.
Dick Tallcot

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