Upstate Citizens for Equality, Inc.

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Upstate Citizens for Equality

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NEW YORK STATE INFO: Includes state and county information, forum links, state organizations

FEDERAL: includes legislator information and federal government agencies

RESEARCH:  Congressional T & I Acts, newspapers, constitution, government links



Fee to Trust applications are LAND CLAIMS and create tribal reservations if approved.  Casino applications are also land claims that create Indian reservations, unless they’re on an existing Indian reservation, because legally they have to be in Indian Country. 

Tribes invariably apply for additional lands to be placed in trust surrounding any land base settlement they may acquire. This is done with no time limits to file, years to prepare, and 30 days notice to the state for a response.  Where does it stop?

Running a corporation that has been granted a monopoly hardly warrants the additional granting of sovereign immunity to exist. Where most employees are non-Indian and most of the customers are non-Indian, it can hardly even be called a tribal enterprise except by name.

“There are three kinds of men. The one that learns by reading. The few who learn by observation. The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence for themselves.”   Will Rogers



Being that the state allows Vegas nights for non-profits, courts have ruled that tribes are allowed the same type of gambling (class 3) the state allows and have not considered the limitations.  Connecticut has revoked it's Vegas nights law to prevent tribal casino expansion.

Upstate Citizens for Equality, Inc.; UCE Madison-Oneida; P.O. Box 65; Wampsville, New York 13163

Upstate Citizens for Equality, Inc.; UCE Cayuga-Seneca; P.O. Box 24; Union Springs, New York 13160  NYS Indian Tax Form NO business can legally sell anything tax-free to an Indian UNLESS 1. such Indian resides ON a reservation and 2. they provide the business owner their address to send the item to by 3. filling out the tax form on this web site and 4. the business owner can charge a shipping fee PLUS packaging and handling fees plus 5. the Indian must pay for all in advance and such item must be shipped to that address ON the reservation. If this is not done, the business owner still has to pay the tax to the state or face tax evasion charges! It doesn't matter if you own a restaurant - the same procedure applies.

Syracuse OnLine - Land claim forum

NY – Finger Lakes forums  Most active threads presently are on the Cayuga County link.  Older threads are on the Seneca County link going back to June 2006 and further  NYS Governor's web site    NYS Library   - NYS Constitution Art. 1 Sec. 9-2 refers to gambling.


Buffalo-Niagara Partnership (BNP); see ): see their statement at 

Casino Free Sullivan County,. INC. PO Box 536. Monticello, NY 12701 

Citizens Against Casino Gambling in Erie County
(CACGEC); see  Joel Rose co-chair

Citizens Against Gambling in the Thousand Islands Region 

Citizens for Common Sense (CCS); see
or see their statement at

Citizens Opposed to New Casinos in Established Residential Neighborhoods
(CONCERN); see article at

Coalition Against Casino Gambling (of the Catskills; CACG); see articles at   or

Constitution Party of New York (CPNY)

Eastern Niagara Citizens Opposed to Casino Gambling
(ENCOCG); e-mail Rev. J. Fay Cleveland at

Green Party of Erie County (GPEC); see
or see their statement at

New Millenium Group (NMG); of Buffalo; see
or see their statement at

Niagara Falls Concerned Citizens About Casinos (NFCCAC); see brief
article at

NoCasino (NC); Thousand Islands; e-mail Charlotte Wellins at

Coalition Against Casino Gambling in New York (CAGNY)

Save the East End – Stop the Shinnecock Casino

The Frank Report 

Stop the Casino in Hampton Bays

Ulster County Citizens Against Casino Gambling (UCCACG);



State Senate

State Assembly


CAYUGA and ONEIDA land claims / Trust applications

Senator David J. Valesky -  49th Senate District 

includes parts of Oneida, Madison, Onondaga, and Cayuga Counties

Legislative Office Building, Room 707, Albany, New York 12247
Phone: (518) 455-2838
Fax: (518) 426-6885

805 State Office Building, 333 East Washington Street, Syracuse, New York 13202
Phone: (315) 478-8745
Fax: (315) 474-3804


CAYUGA Fee to Trust applications

Senator Michael F. Nozzolio    54th Senate District

Seneca and Wayne Counties and parts of Cayuga, Monroe, Ontario and Tompkins Counties  –

409 Legislative Office Building, Albany, New York 12247    518-455-2366 

119 Fall Street, Seneca Falls, New York 13148    315-568-9816


Assemblyman Gary D. Finch     

Assembly District 123 Broome, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, and Tioga 

LOB 320, Albany, NY 12248   518-455-5878

69 South Street, Auburn, NY 13021   315-255-3045


Assemblyman Brian Kolb 

Assembly District 129 Cayuga, Cortland, Onondaga, Ontario, and Seneca 

LOB 446, Albany, NY 12248   518-455-5772

607 West Washington St., Suite 2, Geneva, NY 14456 315-781-2030

Assemblyman Bob Oaks

Assembly District 128 Cayuga, Oswego, and Wayne 

LOB 448, Albany, NY 12248 518-455-5655  

Toll Free, 800-767-6257  
10 Leach Road, Lyons, NY 14489 315-946-5166


ONEIDA Land Claim / Fee to Trust Applications  -

Assemblyman David R. Townsend, Jr115th Assembly District 


115th Assembly – Parts of District Oneida & Oswego Counties

4767 State Route 233
P.O. Box 597
Westmoreland, NY 13490

458 Legislative Office Building
Albany, NY 12248

Assemblyman William Magee – 111th Assembly District 

Includes Madison Co. and parts of Oneida & Otsego Counties 


214 Farrier Avenue
Oneida, NY 13421

Oneonta Phone,

LOB 828
Albany, NY 12248


Assemblymember RoAnn M. Destito

116th Assembly District Oneida  includes  part of Oneida County 

LOB 621, Albany, NY 12248 518-455-5454

By Appointment Only 101 West Liberty Street, Rome, NY 13440 315-338-5779
Room #401, State Office Building, 207 Genesee Street, Utica, NY 13501 315-732-1055 


Senator Joseph A. Griffo47th Senate District  

47th Senate District Lewis County and parts of Oneida and St. Lawrence Counties

Legislative Office Building 
RM 944 Albany, NY 12248
(518) 455-3334
Fax: (518) 426-6921

Utica Office
207 Genesee Street
Utica, NY 13502
(315) 793-9072
Fax: (315) 793-0298

Lowville Office
5533 Bostwick Street
Lowille, NY 13367
(315) 376-3325

Massena Office
60 Main Street
Massena, NY 13362
(315) 769-7932
Fax: (315) 769-7964


SENECA casino land claim / tribal influence

Senator Antoine M. Thompson -  60th Senate District  

Includes Niagara Falls and parts of Tonawanda and Buffalo.

Walter J. Mahoney State Office Building
65 Court Street, Room 213 
Buffalo, New York 14202
716-854-8705  Fax  716-854-3051

LOB 615
Albany, NY 12248
518-455-3371 - Fax  518-426-6969


Assemblymember Crystal D. Peoples  -  141st Assembly District

Includes part of Erie County -

792 E. Delavan Avenue
Buffalo, NY 14215

LOB 619
Albany, NY 12248


Assemblyman Sam Hoyt – 144th Assembly District

Includes Grand Island and part of Buffalo

936 Delaware Avenue
Suite 005
Buffalo, NY 14209

LOB 454
Albany, NY 12248


Assemblymember Mark J. F. Schroeder   145th Assembly District  -

Includes West Seneca, Orchard Park and parts of Buffalo and Lackawanna

2019 Seneca Street
Buffalo, NY 14210

LOB 323
Albany, NY 12248


MOHAWK casino land claim / tribal influence 

Senator Elizabeth O’C Little   45th Senate District  

Includes Clinton, Essex, Hamilton, Franklin, Warren & Washington Counties

(Little’s District includes the Mohawk Rez)

903 Legislative Office Building
Albany, NY 12247
(518) 455-2811

5 Warren Street, Suite 3
Glens Falls, NY 12801
(518) 743-0968

305 West Bay Plaza
Plattsburgh, NY 12901
(518) 561-2430


ULSTER COUNTY was approved by the state legislature to accept a tribal casino.  Such would require the establishment of an Indian reservation there to be legal. 

Assemblyman Cahill  101st Assembly District: Parts of Ulster and Dutchess Counties 

Governor Clinton Bldg. Suite G-4
1 Albany Ave
Kingston, NY 12401

LOB 557
Albany, NY 12248


SULLIVAN County was approved by the state legislature to accept a tribal casino.  Such would require the establishment of an Indian reservation there to be legal.  Tentative home of Mohawk casino deal. 

Assemblymember Aileen M. Gunther 98th Assembly DistrictGuntheA@ 

Sullivan and part of Orange County:  

18 Anawana Lake Road
Monticello, NY 12701

19 South Street
Middletown, NY 10940

LOB 428
Albany, NY 12248


ORANGE COUNTY – as traffic to & from the tentative casino deal(s) in Catskill County would drastically effect tr4affic flow, etc.  

Assemblywoman Annie Rabbitt   97th Assembly District    

Parts of Orange & Rockland Counties  

41 High Street
Goshen, NY 10924

LOB 719
Albany, NY 12248


Assemblywoman Nancy Calhoun - 96th Assembly District   calhoun@

Parts of Orange & Rockland Counties

1012 Little Britain Rd.
Suite 900
New Windsor, NY 12553

LOB 525
Albany, NY 12248


Municipality Web Sites: 


Affected counties in the NY Cayuga and OK Seneca-Cayuga Fee to Trust applications


Board of Supervisors


Cayuga County Legislators

Cayuga Co. City, Town, Village, State & Federal Reps    

George Fearon, Chairman Cayuga Co. Board 

City of Auburn – Mayor Lattimore is courting the Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga tribe and Gov. Spitzer to establish a reservation within the city limits.    Mayor & City Council:


Affected counties in the Oneida Land Claim / Trust applications:


Madison Co. Board of Supervisors 


Land claim information. 

Oneida Co. Board of Legislators,%20R-12  


Affected counties in the Onondaga Land Claim 

ONONDAGA County Legislature 

JEFFERSON County Legislature

OSWEGO County Legislature

CAYUGA County Legislators

CORTLAND County Legislature

TOMPKINS County Legislature   

TIOGA County Legislature     

BROOME County Legislature 

Affected counties by the Seneca Tribe

ERIE County Legislature 

NIAGARA County Legislature 


Affected Counties by the Shinnecock Tribe

SUFFOLK County Legislature   


Affected Counties by the Mohawk Tribe

ST. LAWRENCE County legislators  

FRANKLIN County Legislators

SULLIVAN County Legislators 

ULSTER County Legislators


HOW TO CONTACT YOUR CONGRESSMEN   Call your Congressional Representative and Senators at (202) 224-3121 and/or write to them: U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515 and U.S. Senate, Washington, DC 20510.

When writing to your congressman or Senator always include your full name, address, and phone number so they can respond to your letter, fax or e-mail.

E-mail your Congressional Representative at  or through their web sites.  White House  U.S. Senate  Senate Indian Affairs Committee

E-mail Senators Clinton & Schumer through the following link:   Senator Charles Schumer   Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton  U.S. House of Representatives    Congressman Michael Arcuri – 24th Congressional District includes parts of Cayuga, Seneca, Broome, Chenango, Cortland, Herkimer, Oneida, Ontario, Otsego, Tioga, & Thompkins Counties  (Cayuga and Oneida land claims – Trust applications)   Congressman James T. Walsh – 25th Congressional District  includes Onondaga, Wayne, parts of Cayuga & Monroe Counties  (Cayuga Trust applications & Onondaga land claim). Jim's father was Congressman of this district before him. His father voted to extend the filing deadline when the Federal Indian Land Claims Commission disbanded in 1980, thus allowing the Cayuga tribe to appeal the Commission's rulings.  Congressman Thomas M. Reynolds – 26th Congressional District  includes Niagara & Erie Counties  (Seneca tribal issues)   Congressman John M. McHugh – 23rd Congressional District   includes Oswego, Lewis, Jefferson, St. Lawrence, Franklin, Clinton, Hamilton, and parts of Madison, Essex, and Fulton Counties  (Mohawk tribal issues)     Congressman Maurice Hinchey – 22nd Congressional District includes Sullivan, Ulster, and parts of Broome, Delaware, Dutchess, Orange, Tioga & Tompkins counties.  (Mohawk casino deal in the Catskills)     Congressman Tim Bishop – 1st Congressional District includes Suffolk County  (Shinnecock tribal issues)  Library of Congress - Legislative information  National Conference of State Legislatures State - Tribal relations. They promote apartheid to the extent of keeping track of how many Indians can get elected to every state legislature  For Western Union telegrams - they're attention getters.  "An unofficial compilation - not collected by the U.S. Government." It's a better job.  National Archives and Records Administration.

GOV'T AGENCIES  EPA Cayuga tribe reference - full of half-truths   EPA  - Region 2 home page   EPA tribal programs   Environmental Protection Agency Grants.   EPA - American Indian Environmental Office [Treatment As States]   U.S. Dept. Of Justice - Protecting the Civil Rights of American Indians   U.S. Civil Rights Commission   Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission   - U.S. Dept. of Interior.  Links to over 100 governmental web sites with programs and assistance for tribes including the Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Reclamation, Fish & Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Dept’s of Energy, Education, Health, Commerce, Defense, Housing, Justice, Labor, EPA, Archives, Small Business Administration, Agriculture, Veterans, ... You'll no longer wonder where your tax dollars went.

The National Park Service "Tribal Preservation Program" 

Bureau of Reclamation - another bureau of the DOI turning lands and water back to federal ownership. The Bureau of Reclamation was established in 1902 when the West needed large-scale public works projects, including large dams, reservoirs, and canals   also see   and   (pn – Pacific Northwest) 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service American Indian Tribal Rights, Federal-Tribal Trust Responsibilities, and the Endangered Species Act. Federal policy IS: Indian lands are not federal public lands or part of the public domain, and are not subject to federal public land laws. The DOI will NOT enforce the Endangered Species Act on tribes. 

RESEARCH  The U.S. Constitution  Documents from the Constitutional Convention  1774-1789 Congressional Documents   1774 – 1785 U.S. Congressional Documents - Senate & House Journals, debates  and more  Official website for searching the U.S. Government

* From the Syracuse Herald American January 23, 2000: "Because we don't have a territory of our own, we have been forced to live among our white brothers," said Bernadette Hill, a Cayuga Heron clan mother. "We have had to abide by their rules, their ordinances. We are probably the highest educated of any Iroquois nation."   Maine - Washington County Alliance questionnaire - related to the Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) i.e.: Dept. of Interior. Conclusions: Once targeted, private landowners who refuse to sell may eventually lose their land anyway but the FWS is willing to wait for an opportune occasion to take over. Even as over half of the respondents sold their lands under duress, the FWS in literature and public appearances misleadingly labels all sellers as "willing".  - Money Laundering Through Casinos  Notice is given of the current list of 336 tribal entities within the contiguous 48 states recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes. The Indian art site at the bottom – lists 225 federally recognized tribes in Alaska. 

John Fleming articles:  on The Kentuckian's web site

Time to toss those hyphenated American labels into the melting pot.

David Yeagley articles: David doesn't see the land issue as the central problem. He doesn't feel it would be there except for the gambling impetus. Nonetheless, his articles are noteworthy.  and 

"High Stakes Land Grab" - Oneida land claim  March 12, 1999 Vol. 15 No. 8 in   The online direct link is no longer available 

Wisconsin Oneida Ruling (in NYS) September 2002

Oversight Hearing before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs on Contemporary Tribal Governments: Challenges in Law Enforcement Related to the Rulings of the United States Supreme Court

1790 Trade and Intercourse Act

1793 Trade and Intercourse Act 

NOTE:  the 1790 Act was no longer a law, as being alleged as having been violated in many current land claim lawsuits (including the Onondaga and Oneida).  The 1793 Act and those that followed removed applicability to the states in Section 13.  “SEC. 13. And be it further enacted, That nothing in this act shall be construed to prevent any trade or intercourse with Indians living on lands surrounded by settlements of the citizens of the United States, and being within the jurisdiction of any of the individual states.  25 USC 177 is allegedly a continuance of this “1790 Act”, and to some degree it is.  But it’s a rewrite of the 1834 T & I Act, which removed section 13 from the legislation.  However, the applicable laws (acts) from 1793 to 1834 have the exclusion in them. 

1796 Trade and Intercourse Act

1799 Trade and Intercourse Act

& 1800 supplement

1802 Trade and Intercourse Act

Abrogation of treaties  

United States District Court - Western District Of New York

National Indian Gaming Commission  Writes the regulations regarding tribal gambling

National Indian Gaming Association  Regulates class 1 and 2 tribal gambling, but does not have authority to regulate class three gambling.  Courts have ruled, that’s up to the states. 

The Christian Alliance for Indian Child Welfare   

Jeff Benedict’s web site

Remember -

Ø Newspaper articles do not necessarily reflect the facts.
Ø Facts presented may not be correct.
Ø What you're reading is history, even if it's delivered to you today.
Ø It's too late, or much more difficult, to change what you're reading about.
Ø Doing research may help to prevent from making the mistakes others have already made.
Ø In order to make tomorrow's history better, you have to get involved.    NY - Albany Times Union   Their archives include "Land Claim" articles in 2000 - 73 articles & 2001 - 44 articles, 34 in ‘02, 46 in ‘03 and more   NY - Syracuse Newspapers   NY - Auburn Citizen   NY – Finger Lakes Times   NY – Buffalo News   NY – Post    NY – Wall Street Journal   NY – Utica-Oneida Dispatch   NY – Rome Sentinel   NY – Times herald Record – Catskills    NY – Press Republican – Plattsburgh / Clinton, Essex, Franklin Counties  Access to online newspapers  Access to online newspapers  - Misc. Indian related news from around the country  - Misc. Indian related news from around the country.




Colorado River Indian Reservation Western Boundary Dispute

CANADA   Chatham Kent Community Network. (CKCK) About 1999 ago secret negotiations to create a 4,500-acre reservation on land owned by private landowners discovered. 

CONNECTICUT  N. Stonington No Annexation Group  North Stonington No Annexation group.

HAWAII   Grass Roots Institute - Nurturing the rights and responsibilities of the individual in a civil society    Cessationist website Hawaiin Reporter is a gutsy on-line newspaper that was launched in January 2002    Aloha for All. Aloha is for everyone. All citizens of Hawaii, whatever their ancestry, are entitled to the equal protection of the laws. Special entitlements based on race or ancestry are not equal protection and are not Aloha. 1993 finalized "settlement" of $130 million. 1994 they sued for more plus the land. Still fighting it. Also fighting attempts at giving tribal political status to Native Hawaiians.  Hawaii Matters  Hawaiian sovereignty   Hawaiian Nationalism, Chicano Nationalism, Black Nationalism, Indian Tribes, and Reparations -- Akaka Bill Sets a Precedent for the Balkanization of America 

MINNESOTA  Native American Press / Ojibwe News Exposes tribal corruptions


"We have to get passed the idea that American Indians must forever be looked as victims. I, for one, refuse to be viewed that way any longer." "Government dependence is killing people." "Tribal governments have become corrupt with unchecked power and money." - Roland Morris Sr. Full blood Anishinabe American citizen.

"According to my father, who escaped from Germany in 1938, people stood at the sidelines not wanting to get involved." "The point is, freedoms were being taken away from people a little at a time and those that were not affected stood back and looked the other way. They had their family and jobs to take care of. They didn't like the uncomfortable feelings controversy brought." - Mrs. Roland Morris - Sound familiar?

NATIONAL  National - Citizens Equal Rights Alliance CERA's mission: Federal policies currently deny millions of people living on or near Indian reservations their full Constitutional rights. It is CERA's mission to advocate equal protection of the law so that this nation of many cultures may be one people, living under one system of laws.  Check Other Check other believes all citizens of the United States are, quite simply, Americans. History, heritage, and traditions should be embraced and passed from generation to generation. True equality of all Americans can only be achieved once we collectively stop drawing lines of separation between ourselves.  One Nation - One Nation is a privately funded national organization created to "push back" against the massive expansion of tribal authority and the various disruptions and inequities created by sovereignty- based policies.

OREGON  Klamath River Basin Compact (CA & OR)

WASHINGTON   Stand Up for Clark County   Association of Property Owners and Residents of the Port Madison Area



The following groups may or may not be against gambling but bring to light some of the issues dealing with casinos.

National Focus


California  Stop the Casino 101 Coalition

On Tuesday, March 9, 2004, Stop the Casino 101 Coalition leader Chip Worthington provided documentation to the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors and the Rohnert Park City Council that the proposed casino location at the corners of Rohnert Park Expressway and Stony Point Road is in all probability contaminated with toxic waste.

Citizens for Safer Communities 

1/15/2003 Casino is 58 Acres and growing: As you may know, the US government has placed 58 acres into trust for the tribe. But Station Casinos has already purchased an additional 98 acres across the street on Athens Blvd. which would virtually triple the size of the casino site. Federal law allows any land that is attached to an existing reservation to become reservation land. This is only the beginning. The continuous land grab may never stop and will continue to ruin our quality of life and drain our economy. To see how large Indian casinos can get, just look at the Foxwood Indian Casino in Connecticut-- who is still requesting more land!

Our Mission: Citizens for Safer Communities opposes the operation of the Thunder Valley Casino at Athens and Industrial Avenue in South Placer County, CA, because of it's close proximity to business, schools, churches, and homes.   Voice Mail box, and someone will return your call. 916-552-2001    Information, comments: Citizens for Safer Communities; P.O. Box 624; Rocklin, CA 95677 (916) 552-2001


Connecticut Alliance Against Casino Expansion

Hawaii    Hawaii Coalition Against Legalized Gambling 

Illinois   Church of Christ   Lynwood United Reformed Church

Citizens for Our Community, a grass-roots group opposed to a proposed Ho-Chunk Nation casino slated for Lynwood








New Hampshire

New Mexico

North Carolina



Rhode Island

West Virginia 



Federal Indian Policy promotes privileges through tribalism at the cost of oppressing others and claiming those opposed to these politics of privilege are oppressing those privileged. Such political entities are not needed to sustain and protect sacred and historical sites, traditions, or culture. All other ethnic groups do just that as equals and as Americans. 

If you oppose the separatist movement claiming such political entities violate individual rights, they quickly point out individuals have no rights because they aren't governed under the U.S. Constitution on trust or reservation lands and we owe it to them because of their race. If you're an Indian opposed to their government, they call you an apple (white on the inside), which exposes their prejudice even moreso. 

If you suggest that race is used in reverse discrimination, tribes will say it has nothing to do with race, they are a political entity. Then they refer to you as a racist. Such intimidation has worked on politicians for many years and confuses those who don't understand.

Tribes and Separatists have many web sites. Here is a small sampling:   Onondaga Tribe  National Indian Newspaper owned by the Oneida tribe of New York.  National Congress of American Indians - "Many Nations - One Family"; oddly, an Upstate Citizens for Equality slogan is "Many Cultures - One Nation"  People of the Standing Stone Oneida tribe – NY  United South and Eastern Tribes (USET)  American Indian Movement Grand Governing Council  The Anti-Indian Movement Lists 18 groups they claim are racist including groups that have several Indians involved that think all Americans should be equal. If you are born here you are a native American. The Separatists have convinced many into thinking one has to be an Indian to be a native American. There now appears to be a push to change the meaning of equality to mean racist.  Washington - Center for World Indigenous Studies. Anti-Indian Movement Part II More of the same and a few more groups listed. Oddly they point out "Activists have formed small groups on and near Indian reservations."  More Anti-Indian Comments in C-News. Nov. '96 Re: Alaska - [They actually printed their opposition's letter]. "There were no Indian wars in Alaska, so legislation that set up native rights have been contained in the Statehood Compact. In 1971 the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act transferred $500 million from the feds, $500 million from the state and 44 million acres to the 220+ tribes up here. In return the tribes all agreed to give up aboriginal rights and be Alaskans. "The lure of special treatment and special rights has been too great for some and they have proceeded down the path of litigation in an attempt to get through the judiciary what Congress has not legislated."

[The 44 million acres is free from state and local taxation. Alaska became a state in 1959. In Tee-Hit Ton vs. United States, 1955, the Supreme Court ruled they didn't have to be paid anything. Negotiated final settlements are never "final". Local politicians there are promising more Indian country in exchange for votes.]  Anchorage Daily News reported Dec. 16, 2001: Landmark land claims act still awaits resolution -- by Peter Porco, - ANCSA: Bill gave Natives 44 million acres, $1 billion cash. On Dec. 18, 1971 the Alaska Federation of Natives voted 511 to 56 and said yes to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. President Nixon signed the bill into law in less than an hour. It was the largest land claims settlement in American history. The 44 million acres were to be selected in phases. Land selection was complicated by the fact that the state of Alaska also was choosing lands -- 103 million acres assigned to it under the Statehood Act. Land selection for the tribes and the state is still going on and many lands selected by the tribes have yet to be deeded.

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